Saturday, November 30, 2019
Mein Fuhrer..I can walk Essay In 1962 Stanley Kubrick made a satire about Nuclear holocaust and he called it Dr. Strangelove, or How I Learned How to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.Now, more than four decades later,Kubricks film is an excellent example of human feelings during the early sixties.In fact, the movie continues to be relevant now, as we face our current enemy: global terrorism. To appreciate the brilliance of this film, one must take into account the psychological and social atmosphere at the time when it was made.The story was written during the fifties; the cold war was in full swing.We were involved in Vietnam.The Cuban Missile Crisis had occurred.Fear and paranoia were at an all time high among the civilian, political, and military populations. It was a time when school children were instructed to duck and cover for air raid drills to prepare for a nuclear attack.Fear of the red army the Rooskies was omnipresent.The House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC), which began in 1938, was still summoning people to testify against colleagues and friends.Dr. Strangelove perfectly depicts the paranoia and, in doing so, also shows how absurd the whole thing was. The word subtle does not exist in the world of this film. This is, after all, a comedy which addresses nuclear holocaust and mocks the paranoia of its time. The entire film is ironic. The work opens in a serious mood as a plane crew in flight receives a message that they are to bomb Russia. The captain of the crew, Major Kong, is played by Slim Pickens, an actor recognized for his thick Texas accent. After double checking the order to drop the bomb, Kong unlocks a safe and pulls out a cowboy hat and puts the hat on.At this point, it becomes apparent something is seriously wrong with these people.After an initial viewing it becomes clear that Strangelove is a comedy. On a
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
15 of the Best Online Writing Communities for Aspiring Authors 15 of the Best Online Writing Communities for Aspiring Authors As enjoyable and fulfilling as writing can be, the truth is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s often a solitary endeavor. While we might romanticize the focused artist typing away while imaginary worlds and narratives swirl inside their minds - authors know the truth: writing can get lonely. And moreover, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re working on a one-person project, it can be hard to remain motivated and accountable. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where writing communities come in.Writing communities are the perfect place to find answers to your writing questions and to discuss the ins and outs of the writing life with people who actually understand what youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about.So, if you are tired of listening only to the voices in your head, take a look at our (non-exhaustive) list of top online writing communities. Which is the best writing community for you? Find out here! Top online writing communities1. Absolute Write Water CoolerWith over 68,000 members, this is a large and highly active community. Here you can find threads on every genre imaginable, as well as discussions about freelance writing, the publishing industry, pop culture, writing prompts and exercises, and much more.Perfect for: writers who are looking for a large and active community.2. AgentQuery ConnectWhile this forum will come in handy for any writer, itÃ¢â¬â¢s especially helpful for authors who have already completed their manuscript and are wondering what to do next. The site boasts a wealth of information on publishing topics such as querying agents, self-publishing tips, and book promotion advice.Perfect for: writers who are looking to connect with agents and learn more about the publishing industry.3. Camp NaNoWriMoIf youÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever wanted to go to a writerÃ¢â¬â¢s retreat but canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford it just yet, then this site might help scratch your itch. Holding online Ã ¢â¬Å"camp sessionsÃ¢â¬ in April and July, Camp NaNoWriMo offers a digital space to encourage and empower writers at any point of their career. Here you can work on drafts, revisions, short stories, or any other writing project that involves word-count goals.Perfect for: writers who canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until November to crack their writing goals.Do you belong to a writing community? Which one is your favorite one? Add yours in the comments below!
Friday, November 22, 2019
Definition and Discussion of Enlightenment Rhetoric The expressionÃ Enlightenment rhetoric refers to the study and practice of rhetoric from the mid-seventeenth century to the early part of the nineteenth century. Influential rhetorical works from this period include George Campbells Philosophy of Rhetoric, first published in 1776, and Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, first published in 1783. George Campbell, who lived from 1719 to 1796, was a Scottish minister, theologian, and philosopher of rhetoric. Hugh Blair, who lived from 1718 to 1800, was a Scottish minister, teacher, editor, and rhetorician. Campbell and Blair are just two of the many important figures associated with the Scottish Enlightenment. As Winifred Bryan Horner notes in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Scottish rhetoric in the 18th century was broadly influential, especially in the formation of the North American composition course as well as in the development of 19th- and 20th-century rhetorical theory and pedagogy. 18th-Century Era of Enlightenment Rhetoric Essays written on rhetoric and style in the 1700s include Of Eloquence by Oliver Goldsmith and Of Simplicity and Refinement in Writing by David Hume. On Conciseness of Style in Writing and Conversation by Vicesimus Knox and Samuel Johnson on the Bugbear Style were also produced during this era. Periods of Western Rhetoric Western rhetoric can be divided into distinct categories: classical rhetoric, medieval rhetoric, Renaissance rhetoric, 19th-century rhetoric, and new rhetoric(s). Bacon and Locke Thomas P. Miller, Eighteenth-Century Rhetoric British advocates of enlightenment grudgingly accepted that while logic could inform the reason, rhetoric was necessary to rouse the will to action. As propounded in [Francis] Bacons Advancement of Learning (1605), this model of the mental faculties established the general frame of reference for efforts to define rhetoric according to the workings of the individual consciousness...Like such successors as [John] Locke, Bacon was a practicing rhetor active in the politics of his time, and his practical experience led him to recognize that rhetoric was an inevitable part of civic life. Although Lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) criticized rhetoric for exploiting the artifices of language to promote factional divisions, Locke himself had lectured on rhetoric at Oxford in 1663, responding to the popular interest in the powers of persuasion that has overcome philosophical reservations about rhetoric in periods of political change. Overview of Rhetoric in the Enlightenment Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg, The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings From Classic Times to the Present Toward the end of the 17th century, traditional rhetoric came to be closely associated with the genres of history, poetry, and literary criticism, the so-called belles lettres - a connection that persisted well into the 19th century. Before the end of the 17th century, however, traditional rhetoric came under attack by adherents of the new science, who claimed that rhetoric obscured the truth by encouraging the use of ornamented rather than plain, direct language...The call for a plain style, taken up by church leaders and influential writers, made perspicuity, or clarity, a watchword in discussions of ideal style during the ensuing centuries. An even more profound and direct influence on rhetoric at the beginning of the 17th century was Francis Bacons theory of psychology...It was not until the middle of the 18th century, however, that a complete psychological or epistemological theory of rhetoric arose, one that focused on appealing to the mental faculties in order to persuade...the elocution movement, which focused on delivery, began early in the 18th century and lasted through the 19th. Lord Chesterfield on the Art of Speaking Lord Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanhope), letter to his son Let us return to oratory, or the art of speaking well; which should never be entirely out of your thoughts, since it is so useful in every part of life, and so absolutely necessary in most. A man can make no figure without it, in parliament, in the church, or in the law; and even in common conversation, a man that has acquired an easy and habitual eloquence, who speaks properly and accurately, will have a great advantage over those who speak incorrectly and inelegantly. The business of oratory, as I have told you before, is to persuade people; and you easily feel, that to please people is a great step towards persuading them. You must then, consequently, be sensible how advantageous it is for a man, who speaks in public, whether it be in parliament, in the pulpit, or at the bar (that is, in the courts of law), to please his hearers so much as to gain their attention; which he can never do without the help of oratory. It is not enough to speak the language he speaks in, in its utmost purity, and according to the rules of grammar, but he must speak it elegantly, that is, he must choose the best and most expressive words, and put them in the best order. He should likewise adorn what he says by proper metaphors, similes, and other figures of rhetoric; and he should enliven it, if he can, by quick and sprightly turns of wit. Philosophy of Rhetoric Jeffrey M. Suderman, Orthodoxy and Enlightenment: George Campbell in the Eighteenth Century Modern rhetoricians agree that [George Campbells] Philosophy of Rhetoric pointed the way to the new country, in which the study of human nature would become the foundation of the oratorical arts. A leading historian of British rhetoric has called this work the most important rhetorical text to emerge from the 18th century, and a considerable number of dissertations and articles in specialized journals have eked out the details of Campbells contribution to modern rhetorical theory. Alexander Broadie, The Scottish Enlightenment Reader One cannot go far into rhetoric without encountering the concept of a faculty of the mind, for in any rhetorical exercise the faculties of intellect, imagination, emotion (or passion), and will are exercised. It is therefore natural that George Campbell attends to them in The Philosophy of Rhetoric. These four faculties are appropriately ordered in the above way in rhetorical studies, for the orator first has an idea, whose location is the intellect. By an act of imagination, the idea is then expressed in suitable words. These words produce a response in the form of an emotion in the audience, and the emotion inclines the audience to will the acts that the orator has in mind for them. Arthur E. Walzer, George Campbell: Rhetoric in the Age of Enlightenment While scholars have attended to the 18th-century influences on Campbells work, Campbells debt to the ancient rhetoricians has received less attention. Campbell learned a great deal from the rhetorical tradition and is very much a product of it. Quintilians Institutes of Oratory is the most comprehensive embodiment of classical rhetoric ever written, and Campbell apparently regarded this work with a respect that bordered on reverence. Although the Philosophy of Rhetoric is often presented as paradigmatic of a new rhetoric, Campbell did not intend to challenge Quintilian. Quite the contrary: he sees his work as confirmation of Quintilians view, believing that the psychological insights of 18th-century empiricism would only deepen our appreciation for the classical rhetorical tradition. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres James A. Herrick, The History and Theory of Rhetoric [Hugh] Blair defines style as the peculiar manner in which a man expresses his conceptions, by means of language. Thus, style is for Blair a very broad category of concern. Moreover, style is related to ones manner of thinking. Thus, when we are examining an authors composition, it is, in many cases, extremely difficult to separate the style from the sentiment. Blair was apparently of the opinion, then, that ones style - ones manner of linguistic expression - provided evidence of how one thought. Practical matters..are at the heart of the study of style for Blair. Rhetoric seeks to make a point persuasively. Thus, rhetorical style must attract an audience and present a case clearly. Of perspicuity, or clarity, Blair writes that there is no concern more central to style. After all, if clarity is lacking in a message, all is lost. Claiming that your subject is difficult is no excuse for lack of clarity, according to Blair: if you cant explain a difficult subject clearly, you probably dont understand it...Much of Blairs counsel to his young readers includes such reminders as any words, which do not add some importance to the meaning of a sentence, always spoil it. Winifred Bryan Horner, Eighteenth-Century Rhetoric Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres was adopted at Brown in 1783, at Yale in 1785, at Harvard in 1788, and by the end of the century was the standard text at most American colleges...Blairs concept of taste, an important doctrine of the 18th century, was adopted worldwide in the English-speaking countries. Taste was considered an inborn quality that could be improved through cultivation and study. This concept found a ready acceptance, particularly in the provinces of Scotland and North America, where improvement became a basic tenet, and beauty and good were closely connected. The study of English literature spread as rhetoric turned from a generative to an interpretive study. Finally, rhetoric and criticism became synonymous, and both became sciences with English literature as the observable physical data. Sources Bacon, Francis. Advancement of Learning. Paperback, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, September 11, 2017. Bizzell, Patricia. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings From Classic Times to the Present. Bruce Herzberg, Second Printing Edition, Bedford/St. Martins, February 1990. Blair, Hugh. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, Paperback, BiblioBazaar, July 10, 2009. Broadie, Alexander. The Scottish Enlightenment Reader. Canongate Classic, Paperback, Canongate UK, June 1, 1999. Campbell, George. The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Paperback, University of Michigan Library, January 1, 1838. Goldsmith, Oliver. The Bee: A Collection of Essays. Kindle Edition, HardPress, July 10, 2018. Herrick, James A. The History and Theory of Rhetoric. 6th Edition, Routledge, September 28, 2017. Hume, David. Essay XX: of Simplicity and Refinement in Writing. Online Library of Liberty, 2019. Johnson, Samuel. The Works of Samuel Johnson, LL. D.: An essay on the life and genius of Samuel Johnson. G. Dearborn, 1837. Knox, Vicesimus. Knoxs Essays, Volume 22. J.F. Dove, 1827. Sloane, Thomas O. (Editor). Encyclopedia of Rhetoric. v. 1, Oxford University Press, August 2, 2001. Stanhope, Philip Dormer Earl of Chesterfield. Letters to His Son: On the Fine Art of Becoming a Man of the World and a Gentleman. Volume 2, M. W. Dunne, 1901. Suderman, Jeffrey M. Orthodoxy and Enlightenment: George Campbell in the Eighteenth Century. McGill-Queens Studies in the Hist of Id, 1st Edition, McGill-Queens University Press, October 16, 2001. Various. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. Theresa Jarnagin Enos (Editor), 1st Edition, Routledge, March 19, 2010. Various. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication from Ancient Times to the Information Age. Theresa Jarnagin Enos (Editor), 1st Edition, Routledge, March 19, 2010. Walzer, Arthur E. George Campbell: Rhetoric in the Age of Enlightenment. Rhetoric in the Modern Era, Southern Illinois University Press, October 10, 2002.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
And Analysis Business Problems - Research Paper Example JC PenneyÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment is seen to be less in comparison with its competitors. At present, JCP is functioning to discard this previous image and is trying to concentrate instead on reasonable pricing, attractive marketing and highlighting the exclusive brands that are offered. By analyzing the stimulating plans revealed by JCP, it is found that there are enduring areas the company has not concentrated on. These gaps may cause problems in the long run and have a negative effect on innovation that the company is trying to accomplish. To sufficiently address and recognize the possible issues still prevailing within the new strategy for JCP, it is very important to understand the current position of the company. So as to recognize the newly projected changes and how they will really impact the company, it is important to acknowledge from where the company started, where it is at present and also where it is going. The analysis will connect jointly both periods of JCP and depict the four major environments (PEST) of the company. By analyzing the strategies of the company, any gaps within the plan are assessed and solutions are presented from an outside point of view. Going back to the original format of the department store is one of the recommendations, which would provide JCP with an opportunity of formulating a store separately. The area needs to consider properly before going ahead with this recommendation. Discussions must be done with suppliers to decide the sensibleness of introducing new store areas. Moreover, the company must consider performing a wide market study to scan if consumers are attracted in a central point ground one stop shop or not. It is also recommended to create partnerships between JC Penney and other trendy or customer preferred brands within the new areas of market. This is a modest risk recommendation as it engages integrating a second company into the variety mix for merely an imperfect time period. The retailer has proven th ey can provide good value and pricing, but they have also ignored the more obvious problems of poor merchandise mix and styles.Ã While JC Penny can compete on traditional and formal clothing, an understanding of newer styles seems to escape the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion buyers (Lee par 6). The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current triumphant partnership with Sephora, a cosmetic chain, has paved way for JCP to partner with stylish and popular brands. It challenges the ability to assign and stock products within the suitable time as well as budget that have already been set. It is also recommended to focus on implementing new product changes to fit into the existing image that JCP has shaped. This alteration to choose merchandise and separating merchandise could result in creating various challenges for JCP. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"It is also found that low inventory levels can adversely affect the fulfillment of customer demand and diminish sales and brand loyaltyÃ¢â¬ (Item 1A. Risk Factors pg 5). Positi on: JC Penney Company, Inc. (JCP) is one of the main top department store retailers in America. James Cash Penney started the first JC Penney department store in 1902, initially named Ã¢â¬ËThe Golden Rule.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ever since, with Ã¢â¬Å"1033 JC Penney department stores in 49 states and Puerto RicoÃ¢â¬ (JC Penny 2006 web Pages and Annual Report par 3), it has turned out to be one of the leading retailers in the discount segment and department of the retail
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Globalization and the Future of German Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words
Globalization and the Future of German - Article Example The article on globalization and the future of the German language too offers an accurate analysis. It analyzes the impacts the German language encounters in the face of English being the global language. The authors of the article view the increasing use of the English language as a risk to the use of the German language (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The article looks at the national and global position of their language in comparison to the standing of the English language. The analysis gives the various uses of the German language across the fields of science and their uses in other nations. It also aids in expounding on how it fairs against other foreign languages on the global scene. The authors view the growing pressure of English as a threat to the German language. The article discusses the risks of the German language losing out in the globalization process. The article suggests that these will hinder the countries efforts of growth (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). This article descri bes the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s past glory as the motivation that should drive the current generations. It additionally suggests ways and means that the German authorities can use in improving their impact on the globalization process. The effects of the country lagging behind in this process come as a result of the inability of the regime to market themselves appropriately. This is seen as being the reason the other countries in Europe are growing so rapidly and becoming such great influences in the globalization process (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The authors view English as an official language that people all over the globe use.Ã TThe article on globalization and the future of the German language too offers an accurate analysis. It analyzes the impacts the German language encounters in the face of English being the global language. The authors of the article view the increasing use of the English language as a risk to the use of the German language (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The artic le looks at at the national and global position of their language in comparison to the standing of the English language. The analysis gives the various uses of the German language across the fields of science and their uses in other nations. It also aids in expounding on how it fairs against other foreign languages on the global scene. The authors view the growing pressure of English as a threat to the German language. The article discusses the risks of the German language losing out in the globalization process. The article suggests that these will hinder the countries efforts of growth (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). This article describes the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s past glory as the motivation that should drive the current generations. It additionally suggests ways and means that the German authorities can use in improving their impact on the globalization process. The effects of the country lagging behind in this process come as a result of the inability of the regime to market themselves appropriately. This is seen as being the reason the other countries in Europe are growing so rapidly and becoming such great influences in the globalization process (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The authors view English as an official language that people all over the globe use.Ã Conversely, the article, globalization, and free trade offer highly accurate information from the World Bank on the impacts and effects of globalization. It gives a detail of the evolution of the globalization process to its current state (Goldstein, 2007). The details on the escalation and development of this globalization process are also seen in the book. The book gives examples on several case studies done in various countries ranging from Bolivia, Russia, the United States, and China.Ã
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Abercrombie Fitch vs Armani Essay Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Fierce,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢work it,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢bespoke,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢black,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢covert couture,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢edgy,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢fashion forward,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢aspirational,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢faux pas,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢so last season,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢glamourista,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢retro-futurism,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢: these are some of the words most familiar to fashionistas around the world. Milan, Paris, New York City, London, and Tokyo: these are the cities to be in if you want to know what each designer is preparing for next season, places to be if you want the best and new collection for your clothes. Nowadays, designers know not only that they need the newest and finest clothes but also the psychological appeal that will make the consumer want to buy their clothes. Abercrombie Fitch and Armani both employ the same type of models, but Armani the one that appeals to more conservative and upscale customers is more effective. The designers use the same type of models in their ads. They employ typical young models, athletic, handsome, charming, radiant, almost angelic. They know how to target their audience and appeal to their emotions because most of the consumers want to look like the models in their advertisements. The models that they put in the ads are those who the everyday consumer doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t resemble. The designer implies that buying the product will make the consumer look like the model. Ultimately, both designers appeal to a certain type of consumer and demographics according to their style of clothing design. Less clothes and more revealing is what Abercrombie Fitch commercializes and advertises. In New York, their store has semi-naked models greeting customers. Some of the models might only he wearing jeans, and, in other cases, they might be walking around in their underwear. See more: Homelessness as a social problem Essay Their target audience is the guy next door outgoing, fun, young, athletic, casual, and, most of all, nice-looking. In this particular ad, Abercrombie and Fitch use black and white contrast. The scene gives the illusion of how the costumer would feel like in paradise, and where everything is laid back and where there are no problems. Their models are not wearing shirts, and the scene is casual contrast. The scene sends the consumer into the outdoors, in the spring, and where the fun is endless, priceless, and where the perfect place to be is and all of your wild dreams come true. Couture and sophistication brands Armani. Classic and cultivated is how they advertise and commercialize. When consumers hear this brand, they automatically think of blase, refined, elegant, luxury, and conservative. Their target audience is upper class with refined taste, a working man who wants to feel important and cultivated, the class of customers who are not only going to spend money but also know the quality of the product. In this ad, the designer picked an upscale place to shoot and the background is mainly black.. The ad was shot in black and white but the consumer still can distinguish the color of the modelÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes and bag. The ad also evokes a fine of classic film and elegance, and lures the consumer into an era of where wealth and refined is everything. The ad transports the consumer into a fantasy dream of how he would look with those clothes on and what kind of life style you can have. Both Abercrombie Fitch and Armani hire a specific type models, the models have to be over 6 ft tall, slimmed and tone, perfect cheek bones, blond and black hair, porcelain face, and almost like a creature send from heaven. However, they differ in how they promote their product. One believes semi-naked models are more marketable while the other goes for the extravagance and exquisiteness. Abercrombie Fitch and Armani are known worldwide. Their type of advertisement works because they appeal to different audiences. Abercrombie Fitch pushes the envelope in the sexuality and homoeroticism. Armani stays traditional and conservative and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t push the envelope in sexuality. Their product has a tremendous impact in our society, dictating class and taste in clothes, imagine of success, income, and whether or not the consumer fashionista. These two particular brands have an impact on my life because I have worn both designer clothes, and Armani is my favorite designer. Even if the consumer didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know who Armani was or what is sells, just by looking at this ad, it captivates the consumer with its style of model, clothes, accessory, and allure of black and white film that puts the consumer into this trance of what their life would be like and how they would look like if they owned Armani clothes.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Education is a precious thing that holds the future for all young human beings. It allows us to learn, to grow, and to become functional and responsible citizens of society and the competitive world. Without education, people will not be able to do the things that they want to in the future in order to advance their dreams to improve their lives and society. They will not be able to learn new things, new ideas, and new skills in order to advance the stages of human growth and development. They will be barricaded behind the barriers of ignorance, isolation, and despair. While students in the industrialized developed world have the right and ability to go to school and learn without barriers, it is not the same for the rest of the countries that are categorized as part of the developing world. Girls in developing countries such as Pakistan, do not have the full access and ability to go to school and are facing cultural, political, and economic barriers that are inhibiting the ability of these kids from entering school. The Pakistani government should take responsibility in solving the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s education crisis by reforming its education system to make it accessible for Pakistani girls who are not able to go school. Girls represent a strong majority of those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t go to school. According to an article by Omar Waraich from Time Magazine, Mosharraf Zaidi, the campaign director of an education advocacy group called Ã¢â¬Å"Alif AilaanÃ¢â¬ , stated that 61% of the 25 million Pakistani children who can't go to school are girls. Cultural barriers of male-dominated patriarchy, inherited from the era of British colonialism and traditional Indian culture as according to Latif, are one of the factors that prevent girls from going to sch... ...?" Education Economics 17.3 (2009): 329-54. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Callum, Christine, Zeba Sathar, and Minhaj ul Haque. "Is Mobility the Missing Link in Improving Girls' Schooling in Pakistan?" Asian Population Studies 8.1 (2012): 5-22. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Ghuman, Sharon, and Cynthia Lloyd. "Teacher Absence as a Factor in Gender Inequalities in Access to Primary Schooling in Rural Pakistan." Comparative Education Review 54.4 (2010): 539-54. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Kingston, Anne. "Teen Idol." Maclean's 126.48 (2013): 65-6. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Latif, Amna. "A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan." Educational Studies 45.5 (2009): 424-39. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Waraich, Omar. "Ã¢â¬ËThere Are Thousands of MalalasÃ¢â¬â¢: What PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Teenage Activist Has Already Won." TIME.com. Time Magazine, 11Ã Oct.Ã 2013. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Accountants are in a position to provide advice to business owners to determine which organization structure is best for their particular business venture. Imagine that you were approached by a friend or relative interested in starting a specialty business to design men and women clothing. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of at least two (2) forms of business structures. Make a recommendation regarding the structure your friend or relative should use based on this particular venture. Explain your rationale.Based on your recommendation regarding the appropriate business structure, explain the major advantages and disadvantages of the business owner with minimal accounting experience maintaining the company's books instead of hiring an accountant. Discuss the major impact to the users of accounting statements if the statements are prepared in error. Provide support for your position. The first business structure that I would recommend, would be a partnership I would inform them that general partnerships consist of two or more partners who are both responsible for the business.They share the assets and profits, as well as the liabilities and management responsibilities for running the business. Some benefits of general partnerships is their simplicity and flexibility. General partnerships are usually less expensive to form and require less paperwork and formalities than corporations, limited partnerships or limited liability partnerships. General partnerships can choose a centralized management structure, like a corporation, or a completely decentralized structure, where every partner is actively involved in the management of the business.Other advantages of a general partnership are that the partners can combine resources and share the financial commitment. Some disadvantages to general partnerships, principally liability. General partners are personally liable for the business debts and liabilities. Each partner is also liable for the debts incurred by t he actions of other partners. Because of this potential personal liability, general partnerships are limited in their ability to raise money and attract investors.The second business structure that I would recommend and I think would be most beneficial to both parties would be an LLC (Limited Liability Company). A limited liability company, is a new form of business organization that is certainly worth consideration. It has several features that create favorable tax treatments, as well as protection from personal liability. Since the status of the LLC form of organization varies somewhat from state to state, be certain to find out how your state's law applies.Some of the advantages of an LLC are, LLC allows for an unlimited number of members however, if the LLC has just one owner, it will be taxed as a sole proprietorship. The LLC allows for the special allocation of profits the disproportionate splitting of member profits and losses in different percentages than their respective pe rcentages of ownership. This means that members can enjoy the benefits of receiving profits and writing off losses in excess of their individual ownership percentage.The members enjoy limited liability, which means they are personally protected from any liability of the LLC and successful judgments, as well as from the LLC itself. And just with all advantages there are always disadvantages. Each member's pro-rata share of profits represents taxable incomeÃ¢â¬âwhether or not a member's share of profits is distributed to him or her. The managing member's share of the bottom-line profit of the LLC is considered earned income, and therefore is subject to self-employment tax.The memberÃ¢â¬â¢s share of bottom-line profit is not considered earned income because the members are considered to be inactive owners therefore, the members do not qualify for special tax-favored Ã¢â¬Å"fringe benefitÃ¢â¬ treatment. As a member of an LLC, you are not allowed to pay yourself wages. I would st rongly recommend going with an LLC simple because there is a lot less risk involved. There is a large percentage that businesses fail in the first year, and with that being said you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to lose your business and you personal property too.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"I often asked what is the most serious form of human rights violation in the world today and my reply is consistent: extreme poverty.Ã¢â¬ (Mary Robinson, 2002) World Poverty: New policies to defeat old enemies, Bristol: The Policy Press, 2002, p. x1 This essay will account for and assess ways in which contemporary society seeks to end world poverty by doing the following. As poverty mean different things to different societies the essay will give a meaning for poverty that will mirror this; it will refer primarily to theoretical perspectives of, Amartya Sen and will draw on studies of Peter Townsend, then it will examine how malnutrition, lack of education, debt and unequal life chances can cause the cycle of poverty. Finally, it will inform on how world organizations like World Bank, United Nations and Steven Sinnot Foundation are trying to improve living standards of millions. There is over one billion people living in extreme poverty in the world, Poverty shows itself in many different ways; they include not having a job or any means of earning or making a livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic necessities; increases the risk of untimely death; homelessness; unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. (Alcock 2006). There are two types of poverty; absolute which is where people do not have the means to obtain the basic necessities to survive, they live on less than $1 (US) per day, on the other hand there is relative this is where people have jobs but the wage is so low that they cannot afford the necessities that others in their societies have, they could be relegated to absolute poverty with change of circumstance example becoming ill and having to give up work. (Gibbons, 2006). In 1995 in Copenhagen, the Millennium Campaign was created and agreed by 117 United Nations States at the World Submit on Social Development. The declaration dedicated the UK to the, goal ending poverty in the world through specific actions and with the cooperation of other international communities. After this task, forces were set up focusing upon different aspects of global poverty. Alcock, 2006), p, 48. Peter Townsend theoretical stance on poverty is poverty equals low income and a disadvantaged lifestyle, people are poor when they cannot afford to buy the normal things like others in the society in which they belong; they areÃ deprived of the lifestyle they should have. He sees poverty as relative. I believe that he was possibly influenced by the benefit system in the UK in which he was born. Whereas Amartya Sen see poverty as Ã¢â¬Å"unfreedomsÃ¢â¬ , his theoretical stance is that poverty is deprivation of Ã¢â¬Å"basic capabilityÃ¢â¬ not having the ability to work rather than not having any income, some of the reasons suggested are being too young or too old, gender and social roles, pregnancy and child care. He sees poverty as Ã¢â¬Å"absoluteÃ¢â¬ . I believe his theories are influences by the society in which they were born and raised, a third world country with most of the population lacking the basic necessities to survive. (Alcock, 2006). Even in richer countries some groups within the society are very disadvantaged they do not have access to health care, education, jobs or any economic security. America is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower yet it has the highest poverty rate of any rich nation, According to the census bureau, 15 percent of Americans or more than 46 million people, live below the poverty line, defined as an annual income of $23,000 for a family with two children. Of those, six million live in extreme poverty, with an income of half that or less. (Cornwell, 2012) One of the causes of poverty is malnutrition, the United Nation World Food Program projected that 830 million people go hungry each day, most of them in the developing countries with calorie intake of fewer than 1,800 not enough to keep an adult with the energy needed to lead an active healthy life or to be able provide for themselves and their family, it takes their dignity away. Of that number 200 million are children under the age of 5 years, they are underweight and ill, every year 12 million of them die of starvation, with so many children dying the future of their countries are gloomy. Another cause is lack of education, According to the United Nations International Labour Organization more than 218 million children one in every four are working in developing countries. 126 million are working in hazardous conditions, some work as servants for rich families, others work in agriculture and manufacturing, hotels they work long hours on very low wage, as result they are unable to go to school to learn skills that would offer them hope of ending the cycle that would most likely help out of poverty, so the cycle goes on. (Giddens, 2009) Trade, Africa, though one of the poorest countries is rich in natural resources such as timber and oil but trading with the rest of the world isÃ made difficult because of poor infrastructure, corruption the impact of AIDs on the population of working age. The rules of trade are very stringent and benefit the developed countries more than the poor ones, the poor countries are under cut by the rich as a result they are at a disadvantage. They end up with debt which they cannot pay back (Gibbons, 2009) Unequal life chances is another cause, there is an enormous difference in standards of living between people in rich and poor countries. 40 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor live in poor countries, they live in absolute poverty. Almost a third of them are undernourished and almost all are illiterate, lacking access to basic education. Many are from tribes or ethnic groups that differ from the dominant group in the society in which they live as a result they are discriminated against. The high income countries accounts for 15 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population they are responsible for 79 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s annual output of wealth. They have decent housing, enough food, they have safe drinking water and so many life comforts that the poor countries could only dream off. There are also large numbers poor people in those rich countries but they live in relative as oppose to absolute poverty. (Giddens, 2006) Education would make such a difference to these children and their families lives; it would provide them with skills needed to do skilled work, which would result in economic growth. Also educated people are less likely to have large families thus reducing toe world population. Education is an investment for the future; it is the quickest way to getting poor people out of poverty as seen in Katine which is an area in north east Uganda, population 25,000. A project called Katine Project is run in partnership with Barclays, The Guardian Newspaper and African Medical Research. It is structured around five key components, health, education, water and sanitation, income generation and empowers communities. It is centered on the schools in the area; its aim is to empower its young students. 4000 text books has been supplied to the schools, there is a 21 percent rise in enrolment with more disabled students, orphans and girls joining. Access to comprehensive education is key to the program. As a result of programs like these children world over will gain the skills needed to be able to compete for jobs, make informed choices, and become productive citizens ofÃ their countries. (Engage, Issue six) World organizations such as World Bank, World Health Organization and The United Nations development program have tirelessly supported the cause of international poverty in different countries across the world. They have put together Millennium goals aimed at helping to get rid of poverty, some of the goals are to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water set in 2000, and they have produced annual report on the different aspects of the international dimensions of poverty. (Alcock, 2006) With so many millions of rich people in our world there should not be poverty on the scale in which we have examined. What is poverty? It is a type of cancer that needs to be cured, malnutrition saps energy away from people and as a result they are too weak to provide for themselves and their families they are left weak and helpless, Lack of education keeps people lacking the skills needed to give them a fighting chance of getting out of the poverty trap. Government s of the world have created Goals in an effort to end this travesty, hopefully these goals will be fulfilled and in the next decade we would have done enough to eliminated poverty. 1,529 words References Books Poverty in the United Kingdom, Peter Townsend, (1979) Sociology, sixth edition, Anthony Giddens, (2009) Understanding Poverty, third edition, Pete Alcock, (2006) Journal Articles World Poverty: New policies to defeat old enemies, Bristol: The Policy Press, 2002, p, xi Engage, issue six (The Steve Sinnott Foundation) Newspaper Article Rupert Cornwell, the Independent on Sunday 21 October 2012.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
justice essays What is justice? How does a person know, or think they know, right from wrong in any given situation? The American Heritage Dictionary has two different meanings that define justice and truth. Justice is defined as the upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment and due reward in accordance to honor, standards, or law. Truth is defined as conformity to knowledge, fact, actuality, or logic. A person could certainly argue that justice and truth have their similarities. Every action or decision we make is either justifiable or unjustifiable. However, there are always laws that can be broken, consequences that may follow, or punishment and retribution handed out to them for demonstrating against segregation. Justice can be seen in two different ways, social and criminal. Justice is reflected in the laws under which we live. Justice has always been a concern in American society, and writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King have reflected this concern in their writing. The Thoreau was very influential early American writer. He was about the reflections of the time he lived in, and the spirit of the country. Thoreau wrote his essay on "Civil Disobedience" in hopes others would accept his beliefs and follow his ideas and sentiments regarding Slavery and the United States making war against Mexico. Thoreau's argument was sending a clear message to the people that would deny an unjust government any authority. The poll tax was posed on the people to support the war against Mexico. Was this tax a just law imposed on the people? This tax was unnecessary, and the only purpose was to go to war with Mexico. Did the United States really need this war, or just a few men that wanted more land and money to increase their personal wealth? I do not believe I would have paid the tax myself, and do not think we needed to start another war against Mexico. In review of history during the Mexican War, our country d...
Monday, November 4, 2019
padding-top-2"> Throughout this century, the term natural beauty has taken a wide variety of definitions. Aesthetic treatments are rapidly becoming socially sought after in large urbanized communities, and this craze is rapidly progressing towards a flawless sales tactic for all cosmetic surgeons and media alikeÃ¢â¬âproclaiming that one should invest in themselves. What was once seen as treatment for individuals in dire need is now evolving into a marketable service rendered to those with the means to obtain it. It is clear that demand for aesthetic surgery has skyrocketed in recent years, an increase caused by modern marketing tactics, technological development, as well as the modern idea of individualism and self-expression through artificial body show more content One patient was satisfied with the results, but the other was unsure she wanted to undergo the procedure in the first place. This falls into the human understanding of using stereotypes in order to organize social worlds (Anonymous 2008). Some individuals still have a clouded perception on their motives for undergoing such procedures, and it is not until the damage has been done that feelings of regret occur. Media has created a massive social cult for several years by creating what is seen as the ideal physique, encouraging astray individuals to take extreme measures in order to conform. Another significant factor towards the recent increase of cosmetic surgery procedures is attributed to major technological advancements in recent years. Modern advances in technology have significantly decreased pain level as well as post-operation complications. Cosmetic surgeons are also widely available and offer competitive rates in many urban centers. The repackaging of cosmetic surgery as a business has also allowed for surgeons to advertise, which only adds to a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s temptation. This allows clinics to offer financing and other methods of payment, significantly increasing the accessibility to such services. Advertising campaigns are often aggressive and commission-based, and some firms go as far as offering discounts on multiple procedures. These additional procedures extend the amount of time a patient spends under anesthesia, The Louisiana Purchase: Unconstitutional or Not? Essay | Bartleby padding-top-2"> It seems that since the beginning of history the actions of the government have always been criticized, especially in the sense of public spending. In the case of the Louisiana Purchase many political figures at the time it was created, as well as historians argue whether or not it was in fact a violation of the Constitution or not. This debate is still ongoing, but in order to analyze whether the Louisiana Purchase was unconstitutional or not, one must analyze the sequence of events leading to the acquisition of the territory by the United States. The Louisiana Purchase appeared to be the only solution to the United States anxiety over whether the French would try to control part of the land that many of the colonists were attempting to show more content It seems that since the beginning of history the actions of the government have always been criticized, especially in the sense of public spending. In the case of the Louisiana Purchase many political figures at the time it was created, as well as historians argue whether or not it was in fact a violation of the Constitution or not. This debate is still ongoing, but in order to analyze whether the Louisiana Purchase was unconstitutional or not, one must analyze the sequence of events leading to the acquisition of the territory by the United States. The Louisiana Purchase appeared to be the only solution to the United States anxiety over whether the French would try to control part of the land that many of the colonists were attempting to inhabit. Up through the Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War France had claimed and was controlling a large portion of the territory west of the colonies. The French had claimed, by only began to settle in this expanse of land, but Spain soon obtained it through the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The Spanish did not settle this portion of land either. Since the 1780Ã¢â¬â¢s many American colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ goal was to move westward after the concept spread of Manifest Destiny (in which the colonists believed that it was their God given duty to occupy the land west of the original colonies). President Thomas Jefferson and many other U.S. officials began to become uneasy about the fact that France (who was now under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte) would try to dominate the land Destiny, Fate and Free Will in Homer's Odyssey -... | Bartleby padding-top-2"> OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s Fulfills his Destiny in The Odyssey During OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢s journey in The Odyssey, his own guile, the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ obstacles and their assistance for him affected his destiny. Odysseus uses his crafty sense of trickery and guile to get out of situations, which allow him to reach his destiny of returning home. Many times in The Odyssey the gods who dislike Odysseus set obstacles to try to stop him from returning home. However, there are gods who favor him and give him assistance to reach his homeland of Ithaca. Odysseus found himself in some dangerous situations during his journey but he was clever enough to think of ways to escape them. For example, when he encountered Polyphemus, Odysseus tricked him when he told show more content Instead of using his guile, Odysseus also has the power to prevent from being beguiled. An example of Odysseus using his power to not be beguiled was when he drank CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s potions but nothing happened because of HermesÃ¢â¬â¢ herb. Circe shows her disbelief of Odysseus when she says, "I marvel much that drinking of these drugs you were not charmed. None, no man else, ever withstood these drugs who tasted them, so soon as they had passed the barrier of his teeth; but in your breast there is a mind which cannot be beguiled" (97). Once again Odysseus uses his creative techniques not to be tricked and he turns out safe. By using his guile and other techniques, Odysseus makes it through the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ obstacles, which test his destiny. In order for Odysseus to encounter and pursue his destiny, he must be tried and tested by obstacles put forth by gods or their offspring, such as Poseidon, the Sirens, and Polyphemus. One instance of this occurring was when Poseidon sent a storm in an attempt to capsize OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ boat. Poseidon shows his hate for Odysseus when he says, "I hope to plunge him into sufficient trouble" (50). Poseidon sets forth an obstacle to test Odysseus by making a huge storm in the seas to capsize and break up his boat. Without these obstacles put forth by the gods, Odysseus would have made it home without any trouble. The epithet, "Long-tried The Life of Charlotte Bronte - 798 Words | Bartleby padding-top-2"> Charlotte went through many crises. Her mother died when she was young, and she had to care for her younger siblings. Bronte could not go to school as a young child like everyone else; she had responsibilities. A few years later as she got older sisters died of tuberculosis, and she was left alone. Charlotte Bronte work tells the story of love, life, and death. Charlotte was born at Thorntorn, Yorkshire in 1816. She was the third daughter of Rev. Bronte and Maria Branwell. Charlotte had two sisters and 1 brother. The Bronte children were all great readers, and since they were isolated children they lived through literary fantasies. Living in their fantasy world the children had vivid imaginations, and they invented role-playing games, at times with the wooden toys, and other times in provisional costumes. Shortly after they were born their mother passed away in 1821. Four years after their mother passed CharlotteÃ¢â¬â¢s two sisters died of tuberculosis; they caught it in school. Charlotte Bronte had a really difficult life. She really had no one but her father and brother. Bronte and her brother became really close. Charlotte tried really hard to become successful but yet, she always ended up where she started from. Charlotte began working as a governess in different positions, but none lasted very long. Shortly after she and Emily went to Health Care Professionals Criminal Liability - 1529 Words | Bartleby padding-top-2"> Professional Regulation and Criminal Liability of Nurses Christopher Ponciano September 27, 2010 Legal Issues in Health Care: Regulation and Compliance (HCS/430) University of Phoenix Professional Regulation and Criminal Liability of Nurses The health care field is a very complex workplace environment and the terminology like malpractice encompasses the negligence of health care professionals. In the past, there is a division that existed between physicians and nurses. Additionally, nurses had very defined framework, in which nurses are to wait after a patient have been seen by doctors and simply implements the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s order. In other words, nurses are not to diagnose, treat symptoms, or prescribe medications. In the show more content After the investigation, if the Board determines that the allegations have merit, then the complaint will proceed to an informal hearing. Eventually, the nurse receives a notification in regard to the allegation and the Board will schedule an informal hearing. The Board of NursingÃ¢â¬â¢s attorney, the member of the board, and the nurse are present in the informal hearing. However, if the nurse has retained an attorney, then the attorney will be present during informal hearing. Additionally, before the informal hearing the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s attorney will have the opportunity to discuss the gathered evidence and collect any evidence used during investigation process. The informal hearing starts with the Board of NursingÃ¢â¬â¢s attorney opening statement and the nurse will have an opportunity to present his or her side. After the informal hearing procedure, the board member and the Board of NursingÃ¢â¬â¢s attorney will discuss in private. Disciplinary action and criminal liability. Immediately after the hearing, recommendations are generally made. For example, recommendations can range from dismissal of the complaint, filing a formal charge, or an agreement to negotiate a consent order (Karno, 2005). Under the consent order, the nurse waives his or her rights to contest on the charged allegations or simply seek a review under administrative order. In addition, under consent order gives the nurse and his or her attorney the leverage to control any Fight Obesity With Diet and Exercise Essay - 899 Words | Bartleby padding-top-2"> As humans we are available to a mass assortment of foods that help us survive. These foods provide our bodies with nutrients to remain healthy and calories for energy. If we take in more calories than we burn off, the food then gets stored in our bodies as fat. If this happens regularly there is potential of becoming obese. Obesity means having excessive amounts of fat on the body. Obesity is the second leading cause, behind tobacco, of preventable deaths in the United States. More than half of Americans are overweight and almost one third are obese. There are abundant reasons people become obese including: emotions, genes, sex, age, and many others. There are also several ways to tell if a person is overweight or obese. Lastly there show more content Other eating disorders such as binge eating or bulimia may be associated with obesity. How can you tell if you are overweight or obese? There are a few ways to tell if you are obese, one being checking your body fat percentage. Many health professionals agree that men with more than 25% fat and women with more than 30% fat are considered obese. It is difficult to measure body fat percentage accurately. The methods used at health clubs and weight loss programs may not be accurate if done improperly, therefore special equipment is needed that is not found in many medical offices. People who gain weight around their waist have a higher risk of obesity-related health problems. Women with a waist size greater than 35 inches and men with a waist size greater than 40 inches are at higher health risk. Lastly, and the most effective way to tell if you are obese is by the body mass index or BMI. The BMI is used to check your weight relative to your height and is calculated by weight in pounds and height in inches. Body mass index is much like the body fat percentage but much easier to calculate. Being so much easier to calculate several care providers use it to identify obesity. To calculate your body mass index you must first multiply your weight by 705. Next, take that answer and divide it by your height in inches. Now take the current number and divide it by you height in inches once again. After the three steps are done you are left with your BMI. If your Essay about Oedipus the King and Oedipus Complex - 612 Words | Bartleby padding-top-2"> Oedipus Rex, is a Sophocles play, that according to Freud exemplifies a formative stage in a individuals psychosexual development. The psychosexual stages are the age related developmental periods in which sexual impulses are exerted through different bodily zones and then activities are associated with those areas in the bodily zones. These is when a young child will transfer his love object from the breast to the mother. When the child gives up the breast and moves to the mother it is known as the oral phase. The child then has the sexual desire for the opposite sex parent and will usually have hostility towards the same sex parent. During this time, the child will have a secret desire to show more content The boy then feels hostility and jealously towards his father, but then will come to realize that his father is much more powerful then he is. Freud says, Ã¢â¬Å" the boy will then experience castration anxiety which is the fear that his father will punish him by castration (Freud, 1993) .Ã¢â¬ Fixation at a particular stage may result If the developmental conflicts are not successfully resolved. He figured if this feelings were not successfully resolved then they would contribute to neuroses in later life. The only way anyone could resolve the Oedipus Complex and the anxieties from the complex , the boy ultimately will join force with the enemy by resorting to the defense mechanism of identification. Identification is a psychoanalytic theory that involves the ability to reduce the anxiety by imitating the behavior and characteristics of one individual. For instance, he would most likely imitate his fathers values, attitude and mannerisms. Girls ar e another way in which the Oedipus Complex could be resolved because girls usually identify with the same sex parent and then they develop a strong superego against urges. Freud considered this complex is be the cornerstone of superego and the nucleus of all human relationships. Oedipus in a way had this Oedipus Complex because
Saturday, November 2, 2019
ISMG - Essay Example Keeping information from the analyst could have serious legal implications for Barton and could land him into trouble. The best approach for Barton would be to focus on the positives and try and only answer questions that the analyst asks (Austin, Nolan and ODonnell). The basic reason behind the poor structure of the recovery plan was neglect on the part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department. The neglect of recovery plan allowed the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees to take it for granted. This further led to the planÃ¢â¬â¢s frequent testing (Austin, Nolan and ODonnell). Continuation testing and validation of the recovery system ensures that the recovery plan is in up to date and ensures that the concerned individuals at the organization are well prepared in case an unfavorable incident occurs within an organization. Recovery plans are to be tested by an organization at least once every year. Moreover costs of carrying out the test were also one of the reasons why the organization was not enthusiastic about reviewing its recovery plan. Neglect of the recovery system and lack of interest on the part of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s management proved to be costly to the entire organization (Austin, Nolan and ODonnell). Shutting down an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT system is a major setback. Not only would that mean loss of profits but would also have an impact on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Shutting down the IT system is the last resort and must only be used after all options have been thoroughly reviewed, examined and deemed ineffective. IT systems must be shut down when there is a fear that an attacker has placed a malicious piece of software, such as a Trojan, within the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s network (Austin, Nolan and ODonnell). Usually such a piece of software provides the attacker with a backdoor to access the network and cause damage to the network itself and the data that resides within the network. In such a case an organization must shut down its